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Abel, Annie Helloise. The American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist. Introduction by Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1992.

—. The American Indian in the Civil War, 1862–1865. Introduction by Theda Purdue and Michael D. Green. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1992.

—. The American Indian and the End of the Confederacy: 1863–1866. Introduction by Theda Purdue and Michael D. Green. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1993.

Askew, Rilla. Fire in Beulah. New York: Viking, 2001.

Barry, Brewton. Almost White: A Study of Certain Racial Hybrids in the Eastern United States. New York : Macmillan, 1963.

Bennett, Lerone, Jr. Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619–1966. Chicago: Johnson Publishing, 1966.

Berkhofer. Robert F. The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present. New York: Knopf, 1978.

Bier, Lisa. American Indian and African American People, Communities, and Interactions: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood/Praeger Press, 2004.

Bird, Elizabeth , ed. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

Blu, Karen. The Lumbee Problem: The Making of an American Indian People. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Bordewich, Fergus M. Killing the White Man's Indian: Reinventing Native Americans at the End of the Twentieth Century. New York: Doubleday, 1996.

Brooks, James F., ed. Confounding the Color Line : The Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 2002.

Brooks, James F. Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship and Community in the Southwest Borderlands. Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina Press, 2002.

Brooks, Joanna. American Lazarus: Religion and the Rise of African-American and Native American Literatures. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Chance, John K. Race and Class in Colonial Oaxaca. Palo Alto : Stanford University Press, 1978.

Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth. Anti-Indianism in Modern America: A Voice from Tatekeya's Earth. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 2001.

Corkran, David. The Creek Frontier, 1540–1783. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1962.

Craton, Micheal. From Caribs to Black Caribs: The Amerindian Roots of Servile Resistance in the Caribbean. Amherst: University Massachusetts Press, 1986.

Craven, Wesley Frank. White, Red, and Black: the Seventeenth-Century Virginian. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1971.

Crowe, Cameron. Indians and Blacks in White America. Athens: U. Georgia Press, 1975.

Daniel, G. Reginald. More than Black: Multiracial Identity and the New Racial Order. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.

Debo, Angie. And Still the Water Runs: The Betrayal of the Five Civilized Tribes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940.

—. The Road to Disappearance: A History of the Creek Indians. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1941.

Deloria, Philip. Playing Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Dipple, Brian. The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1982.

Drinnon, Richard. Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-Building. Minneapolis: U. Minnesota Press, 1980.

Duane , Champagne . Social Order and Political Change: Constitutional Governments among the Cherokee, the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, and the Creek. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880. New York: World Publishing Co. Meridian Books, 1964.

Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1988.

Elazar, Barkan. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Elena, Maria Cortes. Negros Amancebados con Indias, Siglo XVI. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1982.

Ellsworth, Scott. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 1982.

Evans, W. Mckee. To Die Game: The Story of the Lowry Band, Indian Guerillas of Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1971.

Everett, Diana. The Texas Cherokees: A People between Two Fires. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1990.

Falkowski, James E. Indian Law/Race Law: A Five Hundred Year History. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

Feraca, Stephen E. Why Don't They Give Them Guns? The Great American Indian Myth. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1990.

Fisher, Ada Lois Sipuel, and Danney Goble. A Matter of Black and White: The Autobiography of Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Fisher, LeRoy H. The Battle of Honey Springs. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press for the Oklahoma Historical Society, 1988.

Fixico, Donald L. The Urban Indian Experience in America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000.

Forbes, Jack D. Black Africans and Native Americans : Color, Race, and Caste in the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

—. Africans and Native Americans: the Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. 2nd ed. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 1993.

Foster, Laurence. Negro-Indian Relationships in the Southeast. New York: AMS Press, 1978.

Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: U. Minnesota Press, 1993.

Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. The Blacks in Oklahoma : Newcomers to a New Land. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1980.

—. Journey toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1982.

Franklin, John H. and John W. Franklin , eds.; Buck Colbert Franklin. My Life and an Era: The Autobiography of Buck Colbert Franklin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Franklin, John H. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York: Random House Vintage Books, 1969.

Gaines, W. Craig. The Confederate Cherokees: John Drew's Regiment of Mounted Rifles. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670–1717. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Garoutte, Eva Marie. Real Indians: Identity and the Survival of Native America. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003.

Garrison, Tim Alan. The Legal Ideology of Removal. Athens: U. Georgia Press, 2002.

Genovese, Eugene D. In Red and Black; Marxian Explorations in Southern and Afro-American History. New York, Pantheon Books, 1971.

Gill, James. Lords of Misrule: Mardi Gras and the Politics of Race in New Orleans. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1997.

Gilroy, Paul. Against Race: Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 2000.

Goldberg, David Theo. "Made in the USA." In American Mixed Race: The Culture of Microdiversity, ed. Naomi Zack. Lanham: Rowmann and Littlefield, 1995.

Gotanda, Neil. "A Critique of 'Our Constitution is Color-Blind." In Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement , eds. Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas. New York: The New Press, 1995. pp. 257-75.

Graham, Susan. "Grassroots Advocacy." In The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier, ed. Maria Root. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996.

Graves , John W. Town and Country: Race Relations in an Urban-Rural Context, Arkansas , 1865–1905. Fayetteville: U. Arkansas Press, 1990.

Graves Jr., Joseph L. The Emperor's New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Gray, Edward G. and Norman Fiering, eds. The Language encounter in the Americas, 1492–1800. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000.

Greenberg, Jonathan D. Staking a Claim: Jake Simmons and the Making of an African-American Oil Dynasty. New York: Athenaeum, 1990.

Gregory, Steven and Roger Sanjek, eds. Race. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Harjo, Joy. The Spiral of Memory: Interviews. Ed. Laura Coltelli. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Harris, Cheryl I. "Whiteness as Property." In Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement, eds. Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas. New York: The New Press, 1995. pp. 276-91.

Herskovits, Melville J. The American Negro: A Study in Racial Crossing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1928.

Hertzberg, Hazel. The Search for an American Indian Identity. New York: Syracuse University Press 1971.

Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial anglo-saxonism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Hudson, Charles M., ed. Red, White and Black: Symposium on Indians in the Old South. Athens: U. Georgia Press, 1971.

—. Southeastern Indians. Knoxville: U. Tennessee Press, 1976.

Huhndorf, Shari M. Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a Road. New York: HarperPerennial, 1991 [1942].

James, Clifford A. Being and Becoming Indian: Biographical Studies of North American Frontiers. Chicago : Dorsey Press, 1989.

Johnston, James Hugo. Race Relations in Virginia and Miscegenation in the South, 1776–1860. Amherst: U. Massachusetts Press, 1970.

Jones, Lisa. Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex, and Hair. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

Kansas State Print. Co. Report of the Adjutant General of the state of Kansas, 1861–65. Vol. I. Topeka: Kansas State Printing Co., 1896.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Atheneum, 1986.

—, and Paula Angle Franklin. Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1993.

Korgen, Kathleen. From Black to Biracial: Transforming Racial Identity among Americans. New York: Praeger, 1999.

Krupat, Arnold. Ethnocritism: Ethnography, History, and Literature. Berkeley: U. California Press, 1992.

Larsen, Nella. Quicksand and Passing, ed. Deborah McDowell. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1988 [1928].

Leiker, James N. Racial Borders: Black Soldiers along the Rio Grande. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 2002.

Limerick, Patricia N. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987.

Lipsitz, George. Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation. Jackson: Banner Books, University Press of Mississippi, 2001.

—. "Alex Posey: Creek Poet, Journalist, and Humorist," American Indian Lives. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1992.

—. Seminole Burning: A Story of Racial Vengeance. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996.

—. Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture. Minneapolis: U. Minnesota Press, 1990.

Littlefield Jr., Daniel F. The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to American Citizenship. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1978.

Locke, Alain. Race Contacts and Interracial Relations. Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1992.

Mankiller, Wilma, and Michael Wallis. Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin 's Press, 1993.

Martin, Cheryl English. Rural Society in Colonial Morelos. Albuquerque: U. New Mexico Press, 1985.

McBridge, Lela J. Opothleyaholo and the Loyal Muskogee : Their Flight to Kansas in the Civil War. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000.

McLoughlin, William Gerald. After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty, 1839–1880. Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina Press, 1993.

McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana: U. Illinois Press, 1989.

Meillassoux, Claude. The Anthropology of Slavery: The Womb of Iron and Gold. London: Athlone Press, 1990.

Menchaca, Martha. Recovering History; Constructing Race. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001. pp. 62-66.

Mihesuah, Devon A. American Indians: Stereotypes and Realities. 1996. Rpt. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1996.

—, ed. Natives and Academics: Researching and Writing about American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Miles, Tiya. Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. University of California Press, February 2005.

Monitor Printing Co. History of Neosho and Wilson Counties , Kansas. Fort Scott, Kans.: Monitor Printing Co., 1902.

Moore, John H. The Cheyenne Nation: A Social and Demographic History. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1987.

Monaghan, Jay. Civil War on the Western Border: 1854–1865. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955.

Morgan, Kathryn L. Children of Strangers: The Stories of a Black Family. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

Mulroy, Kevin. Freedom on the Border: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory , Coahuila, and Texas. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1993.

Nagel, Joane. American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Red Power and Resurgence of Identity and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Nash, Gary B. Red, White and Black: The People of Early America. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1974.

Njeri, Itabari. "Sushi and Girls: Ethnic Identity and Conflict in a Newly Multicultural America." In Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation, ed. Gerald Early. New York: Viking Penguin, 1993.

Omi, Micheal, and Howard Winant, Racial Reformation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York: Routledge, 1986.

Ortiz, Simon, ed. Beyond the Reach of Time and Change: Native American Reflections on the Frank A. Rinehart Photograph Collection. Tucson, AZ: U. Arizona Press, 2005.

Owens, Louis. Mixedblood Messages: Literature, Film, Family, Place. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

Penn, William S., ed. As We Are Now: Mixblood Essays on Race and Identity. Berkeley: U. California Press, 1997.

Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540–1866. Knoxville: U. Tennessee Press, 1979.

Pescatello, Ann M., ed. Old Roots in New Lands: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives on Black Experiences in the Americas. Westport Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977.

Phillips, Glenn S, and Keven Virgilio. Race Relations in Oklahoma. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Human Rights Commission, 1979.

Piper, Adrian. "Passing for White, Passing for Black." In Passing and the Fictions of Identity, ed. Elaine Ginsberg. Durham: Duke University Press: 1996.

Popenoe, Paul and Roswell H. Johnson. Applied Eugenics. New York: Mcmillan, 1918.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins. The Negro on the American Frontier. New York: Arno Press, 1971.

—, Alcione M. Amos, and Thomas P. Senter. The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.

Reid, John P. A Law of Blood: Primitive Law of the Cherokee Nation. New York: New York University Press. 1970.

Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Rolling, Willard H. The Osage: An Ethnohistorical Study of Hegemony on the Prairie Plains. Columbia: U. Missouri Press, 1992.

Root, Maria, ed. The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1996.

Root, Maria P.P. Racially Mixed People in America. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1992.

Ryan, Mary P. Civic Wars: Democracy and Public Life in the American City during the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: U. California Press, 1997.

Said, Edward. "An Ideology of Difference." In "Race," Writing, and Difference, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Sider, Gerald. In Red and Black: Marxian Explorations in Southern and Afro-American History. Knoxville: U. Tennessee Press, 1984.

—. Lumbee Indian Histories: Race, Ethnicity, and Indian Identity in the Southern United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Sollors, Werner. Neither Black nor White Yet Both: Thematic Explorations of Interracial Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Spring, Joel H. The Cultural Transformation of a Native American Family and Its Tribe, 1763–1995: A Basket of Apples. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.

Stephens, Gregory. On Racial Frontiers: The New Culture of Frederick Douglass, Ralph Ellison, and Bob Marley. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Streeter, Caroline. "Ambiguous Bodies: Locating Black/White Women in Cultural Representations." In The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier, ed. Maria Root. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1996.

Sturm, Circe. Blood Politics: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1987.

—. The Cherokees: A Population History. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1990.

—, ed. Studying Native America. Madison: U. Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Trafzer, Clifford E. and Joel R. Hyer, eds. "Exterminate Them": Written Accounts of the Murder, Rape and Enslavement of Native Americans during the California Gold Rush, 1848-1868. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1999.

Tubbee, Okah, and Daniel F Littlefield. The Life of Okah Tubbee. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1988.

Unrau, Williams E. Mixed-Bloods and Tribal Dissolution: Charles Curtis and the Quest for Indian Identity. Lawrence: U. Kansas Press, 1989.

Usner, Daniel H. Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley before 1783. Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina Press, 1992.

Vizenor, Gerald. CrossBloods: Bones Courts, Bingo and Other Reports. Minneapolis: U. Minnesota Press, 1990.

Vron, Ware. Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism, and History. London: Verso, 1992.

Walker, Cheryl. Indian Nation: Native American Literature and Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.

Weaver, Jace. That the People Might Live: Native American Literatures and Native American Community. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Wells, Mary Ann. Searching for Red Eagle: A Personal Journey into the Spirit World of Native America. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.

White, Christine Schultz and Benton R. White. Now the Wolf Has Come: The Creek Nation in the Civil War. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996.

White, Howard A. The Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1970.

Wickett, Murray R. Contested Territory: Whites, Native Americans, and African Americans in Oklahoma , 1865–1907. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

Wiget, Andrew, ed. Critical Essays on Native American Literature. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.

—. Handbook of Native American Literature. New York: Garland, 1994.

Williams, Carmaletta M. Langston Hughes in the Classroom: Do Nothin' Till You Hear from Me. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2006.

Williamson, Joel. New People: Miscegenation and Mulattoes in the United States. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Womack, Craig S. Red on Red: Native American Literary Separatism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Wright, J. Leitch, Jr. Creeks and Seminoles. Lincoln: U. Nebraska Press, 1986.

Young, Robert. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture, and Race. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Zack, Naomi. Race and Mixed Race. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Zook, Kristal Brent. "Light-Skinned(ded) Naps." In Making Face, Making Soul, ed. Gloria Anzaldúa. San Francisco: Aunt Lute, 1988.

Articles Back to top of page

Adams, Wallace David. "Education in Hues: Red and Black at Hampton Institute, 1878–1893." The South Atlantic Quarterly 76, no. 2 (Spring 1977): 159–60.

Balman, Gail. "The Creek Treaty of 1866." Chronicles of Oklahoma 4 (Summer 1970): 184–96.

Bateman, Rebecca B. "Africans and Indian: A Comparative Study of the Black Carib and Black Seminole." Ethnohistory 37, no. 1 (Winter 1990): 1–24.

Carmagnani, Marcelo. Demografia Ysocie: La Estructura Social de los Centros Mineros del Norte de Mexico, 1600–1720. Historia Mexicana 21 (1972).

Chappell, Kevin. "Black Indians Hit Jackpot in Casino Bonanza. Pequot Descendants Flock to Connecticut to Cash in on Gambling Craze." Ebony 50, no. 8 (June 1995): 46.

Chickasaw Nation. "Laws of the Chickasaw Nation, I.T., Relating to Intermarried and Adopted Citizens and the Rights of Freedmen." The Constitutions and Laws of the American Indian Tribes; 12. Wilmington, Del: Scholarly Resources, 1975.

Choctaw Nation. "The Freedmen and Registration Bills, Passed at a Special Session of the Choctaw Council, Indian Territory, May 1883; Laws of the Choctaw Nation, Passed at the Choctaw Council at the Regular Session of 1883 = Chanta Okla i Nan Vhlpesa: Nan Apis a Ittafama He Aiahlpiesa Afammi, 1883." The Constitutions and Laws of the American Indian Tribes 18. Wilmington , Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1975.

"The Claim of James C. Watson." The National Era 15 July 1852: 114.

Craven, Wesley Frank. "White, Red, and Black: the Seventeenth-Century Virginian." The Norton Library; N857. New York: Norton, 1977.

Davis, E. "Scenes at a Hampton Anniversary." The Southern Workman 42, no. 6 (June 1913).

Davis, J.B. "Slavery in the Cherokee Nation." Chronicles of Oklahoma 11 (December 1933): 1056–72.

Duncan, James W. "Interesting Ante-Bellum Laws of the Cherokees, Now Oklahoma History." Chronicles of Oklahoma 6 (June 1928): 178–80.

Evans, Stephen F. “Indigenous Liaisons: Sex-Gender Variability, Indianness, and Intimacy in Sherman Alexie’s The Toughest Indian in the World.” Sherman Alexie: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Jeffrey Berglund and Jan Roush. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. Forthcoming.

—. “‘Open Containers’: Sherman Alexie’s Drunken Indians.” American Indian Quarterly 25.1 (winter 2001): 46-72.

Evers, Lawrence J. “The Killing of a New Mexican State Trooper: Ways of Telling an Historical Event.” In Andrew Wiget, Critical Essays on Native American Literature. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985, 246-61.

Fitz, Brewster E. “Undermining Narrative Stereotypes in Simon Ortiz’s ‘The Killing of a State Cop.’” MELUS 28.2 (2003): 105-20.

Forbes, Jack. "The Manipulation of Race, Caste, and Identity: Classifying AfroAmericans, Native Americans, and Red-Black People." The Journal of Ethnic Studies 17 (1990): 17–18.

Goldberg, Carole. "American Indians and 'Preferential' Treatment." UCLA Law Review 49 (2002): 943-89.

Graulich, Melody, ed. “Yellow Woman.”: Leslie Marmon Silko. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1993.

Green, Rayana. "The Tribe Called Wannabee: Playing Indian in America and Europe." Folklore 99, no. 1 (1988): 30–50.

Hagan, William T. "Full-Blood, Generic, and Ersatz: The Problem of Indian Identity." Arizona and the West 27 (4): 309–26.

Haliburton, Ray Jr. "Origins of Slavery among the Cherokees." Chronicles of Oklahoma 52 (Winter 1974–75): 483–96.

—. "Black Slave Control in the Cherokee Nation." Journal of Ethnic Studies 3 (Summer 1975): 23–35.

—. "Red over Black: Black Slavery among the Cherokee Indians." Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies No. 27. Westport , Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977.

Hirsch, Bernard A. “‘Stay Calm, Be Brave, Wait for the Signs’: Sign-Offs and Send-Ups in the Fiction of Thomas King.” Western American Literature 39.2 (2004): 145-75.

—. “‘The Telling Which Continues’: Oral Tradition and the Written Word in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Storyteller.” American Indian Quarterly 12:1 (winter 1988): 1-25.

Hobbes, Dwight. "Black Indians: The Emerging Identity of African Americans Claiming Their Native Ancestry." The Circle 31 (October 1997): 8.

Hoilman, Dennis. “The Ethnic Imagination: A Case History.” The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 5.2 (1985): 167-75.

Holland , Sharon P. "If You Know I Have a History, You Will Respect Me: A Perspective on Afro-native American Literature." Callaloo 17 (Winter 1994): 334–50.

Holm, Tom, J. Diane Pearson, and Ben Chavis. "Peoplehood: A Model for the Extension of Sovereignty in American Indian Studies." Wicazo Sa Review 18 (2003): 7-23.

Jeltz, Wyatt F. "The Relations of Negroes and Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians." Journal of Negro History 33 (January 1948): 24–37.

Johnson, Willard. "Tracing Trails of Blood on Ice: Commemorating "The Great Escape' in 1861–62 of Indians and Blacks into Kansas." Negro History Bulletin 64, nos. 1–4 (2001): 9–18.

Jones, Dawn Renee. "Red and Black: Sisters and Brothers to the Bone." The Circle 30 April 1999: 18.

KIAANAFH: Round Table on the African American-Native American Connection. Kansas City, Kans. July 11, 1998 (c/o Willard R. Johnson MIT E53-367 Cambridge, MA 02139 ).

LaVelle, John P. "The General Allotment Act 'Eligibility' Hoax: Distortions of Law, Policy, and History in the Derogation of Indian Tribes." Wicazo Sa Review 14 (1999): 251-302.

Leiker, James. "Race Relations in the Sunflower State." Kansas History (Autumn 2002): 214–36.

Lewis, Laura A. "Blacks, Black Indians, Afro-Mexicans: The Dynamics of Race, Nation, and Identity in a Mexican Moreno Community (Guerrero)." American Ethnologist 27, no. 4 (2000): 898.

Littlefield, Daniel F. "Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War." Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies No. 47. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979.

—. "Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation." Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies No. 32. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1977.

—. "The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to American Citizenship." Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies No. 40. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1978.

—. "The Chickasaw Freedmen: a People without a Country." Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies No. 54. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Magnaghi, Russell M. Indian Slavery, Labor, Evangelization, and Captivity in the Americas: an Annotated Bibliography. Native American Bibliography Series, No. 22. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1998.

May, Katja. "African Americans and Native Americans in the Creek and Cherokee Nations, 1830s to 1920s: Collision and Collusion." Studies in African American History and Culture. New York: Garland, 1996.

McLoughlin, William. "Indian Slaveholders and Presbyterian Missionaries, 1837–1861," Church History 42 (December 1973): 535–51.

—. "Red Indians, Black Slavery and White Racism: America 's Slaveholding Indians." American Quarterly 26 (1974): 367–85.

Miles, Donna. "Buffalo Soldiers." Soldiers 45, no. 7 (July 1990): 42–44.

Morton, Ohland. "Confederate Government Relations with the Five Civilized Tribes." Chronicles of Oklahoma 31 (Summer 1953): 189–203.

Pabst, Naomi. "Blackness/Mixedness: Contestations Over Crossing Signs." Cultural Critique 54 (Spring 2003): 178-212.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Negroes and Indians on the Texas Frontier, 1831-1876." The Journal of Negro History 41, no. 3 (July 1956): 185-214.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Negroes and Indians on the Texas Frontier, 1831-1876." The Journal of Negro History 41, no. 4 (October 1956): 285-310.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Negroes and the Seminole War, 1817-1818," The Journal of Negro History 36, no. 3 (July 1951): 249-80.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Negro Guides and Interpreters in the Early Stages of the Seminole War, Dec. 28, 1835-Mar. 6, 1837." The Journal of Negro History 35, no. 2 (April 1950): 174-82.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Negroes on the Southern Frontier, 1670-1763." The Journal of Negro History 33, no. 1 (January 1948): 53-78.

Porter, Kenneth W. "John Caesar: Seminole Negro Partisan." The Journal of Negro History 30, no. 2 (April 1946): 190-207.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Negroes and the East Florida Annexation Plot, 1811-1813." The Journal of Negro History 30, no. 1 (January 1945): 9-29.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Florida Slaves and Free Negroes in the Seminole War, 1835-1842 ." The Journal of Negro History 28, no. 4 (October 1943): 390-421.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Three Fighters for Freedom." The Journal of Negro History 28, no. 1 (January 1943): 51-72.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Notes on Negroes in Early Hawaii." The Journal of Negro History 19, no. 2 (April 1934): 193-97.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Notes Supplementary to 'Relations between Negroes and Indians.'" The Journal of Negro History 18, no. 3 (July 1933): 282-321.

Porter, Kenneth W. "After the Removal to the West (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States )." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 351-58.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Association as Fellow Slaves (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present limits of the United States." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 294-97.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Contacts as Allies (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 307-320.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Contacts in Other Parts (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States)." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 359-67.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Contacts in Warfare (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States )." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 298-306.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Introductions (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States )." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 287-93.

Porter, Kenneth W. "Relations in the South (in Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States )." The Journal of Negro History 17, no. 3 (July 1932): 321-50.

Revard, Carter. “History, Myth, and Identity among Osages and Other Peoples.”  Family Matters, Tribal Affairs. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998. 126-41.

Rodríguez, Roberto. "A Tale of Two Towns: Runaway Slaves and Indians Find Freedom in Mexico. " Black Issues in Higher Education 9, no. 20 (December 1992): 38.

Saunt, Claudio. "A New Order of Things: Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733–1816." Cambridge Studies in North American Indian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Sealing, Keith E. "Blood Will Tell: Scientific Racism and the Legal Prohibitions against Miscegenation." Michigan Journal of Race and Law 5 (2000): 559-609.

Sefton, James E. "Black Slaves, Red Masters, White Middlemen: A Congressional Debate of 1852." Florida Historical Quarterly 51 (October 1972): 113–28.

Shoemaker, Nancy. "How Indians Got to be Red." American Historical Review 102 (1997): 625–44.

Silko, Leslie Marmon. “Language and Literature from a Pueblo Perspective.” Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today. By Silko. 1996. Rpt. in Nothing But the Truth: An Anthology of Native American Literature. Ed. John L. Purdy and James Ruppert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. 159-65.

Smethurst, James Edward. ""Remembering When Indians Were Red': Bob Kaufman, the Popular Front, and the Black Arts Movement." Callaloo 25, no. 1 (2002): 146–64.

Smith, Michael P. "Behind the Lines: The Black Mardi Gras Indians and the New Orleans Second Line." Black Music Research Journal 14, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 43.

TallBear, Kimberly. "DNA, Blood, and Racializing the Tribe." Wicazo Sa Review 18, 81-107 (2003): 95-98.

Taylor, Quntard, "Comrades of Color: Buffalo Soldiers in the West, 1866-1917," Colorado Heritage 15 (Spring 1996).

Toro, Luis Angel. "'A People Distinct from Others': Race and Identity in Federal Indian Law and the Hispanic Classification in OMB Directive No. 15." Texas Tech Law Review 26 (1995): 1219-74.

Warde, Mary Jane. "George Washington Grayson and the Creek Nation, 1843–1920." The Civilization of the American Indian Series, V. 235. Norman: U. Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Weaver, Hilary N. "Indigenous Identity: What Is It, and Who Really Has It?" American Indian Quarterly 25 (2001): 240-55.

Willis, William A. "Divide and Rule: Red, White, and Black in the Southeast," Journal of Negro History 48 (July 1963): 157–76.

Woodson, Carter G. "The Relations of Negroes and Indians in Massachusetts." Journal of Negro History 18 (1933): 317.

Newspapers Back to top of page

Andino, Alliniece T. "Black, Indians Connect at Festival." The Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville, Fla.), 24 May 2001: metro sec., p. B1.

Bair, Cinnamon. "Leading his People; Abraham Rose from Slave to Black Seminole leader." The Ledger (Lakeland , Fla.), 10 February 2002, p. D1.

"'Black Cowboys and Black Indians' Slide Show At Queens Library." New York Voice Inc./Harlem USA, 17 February 1993, p. 21.

"Black Seminoles Left out As Shared Heritage Unravels." The Commercial Appeal (Memphis , Tenn.), 29 September, 2002 (Sunday final edition), sec. Appeal, p. D1.

Broussard, Sharon. "Black Seminoles Still Searching in Land of Plenty." The Plain Dealer 13 October 2002 (final edition), sec. Sundays Arts, p. J11

Brown, Jennifer. "Tribal Standoff Continues Third Day." The Associated Press State and Local Wire 9 May 2002 (BC Cycle), Sec. State and Regional.

Brown, Jennifer. "Court Restores Power to Old Leadership". The Associated Press State and Local Wire 7 May 2002 (BC cycle), Sec. State and Regional.

Cunha, James A., Jr. "Playing the 'Race Card'." Indian Country Today (Lakota Times), 5 September 2001: p. A5

Ford, Brian. "Court Ruling Blocks Black Seminoles." World Capital Bureau (The Tulsa World), 28 April 2002: sec. news.

Glaberson William. "Who Is a Seminole, and Who Gets to Decide?" The New York Times, 29 January 2001 (late edition – final): sec. A, p. 1.

Ghalwash, Mae. " Island Cultures Are not in Spotlight." The Houston Chronicle, 8 April 2001 (Star edition): sec. A, p. 44.

Green, Merissa. "Students Dedicate Monument." The Ledger (Lakeland , Fla), 1 May 2000: Sec. metro, p. B3.

Kimm, Yvette. "Smith Brings History to Life." Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 20 April 2001 (Sarasota Edition), sec. B, p. BS7.

McCabe, Scott. "Battle of Loxahatchee Anniversary Calls Attention to Seminole Struggles." The Palm Beach Post, 16 January 2002 , sec. local, p. 3B.

McCabe, Scott. "Searching for Peliklakaha Land of the Forgotten Seminoles." The Palm Beach Post, 20 August 2001 (Final Edition): sec. A, p. 1A.

Markowitz, Arnie. "The Sad Story of The Seminole Negroes." The Miami Herald, 17 October 2002 , entertainment news sec.

Mattson, Marcia. "Unearthing New History Students Work Reveals a Picture of the Area's Black Seminoles." The Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville , Fla), 4 November 2001 (Sunday city edition): sec. Lifestyle, p. E1.

Melmer, David." Actor Danny Glover Addresses Indian Tribes on African Relations." Indian County Today, 27 November 2000 .

Murray, Randall. "Heritage Up Close Oklahoma Teens Connect with Seminole History." The Jupiter Courier (Jupiter, Fla) 17 July 2002 , sec Jupiter, p. A1.

Nichols, Deborah and Laurence M. Hauptman, "Warriors for the Union." Civil War Times. February1997.

Reed, Beverly A. "The African and Native American Connection." Chicago Defender, 12 February 2000: p. 27.

Reynolds, Barbara. "The Redskins Are Forever Changing." The New York Beacon, 31 March 1999: p 10.

Staples, Brent. "Editorial Observer; The Seminole Tribe, Running from History." The New York Times, 21 April 2002, sec. 4, p. 12.

Vaughn, Leroy. "Our Heritage: America 's Black Indians." Los Angeles Sentinel, 15 July 1998: A8.

Walker, Kelvin. "Found: A Missing Page in American History." The Weekly Journal, 26 January 1995, p. 7.

Web Back to top of page

Angela Walton-Rajj's Websites

The African-native American History & Genealogy Webpage

Freedmen of the Frontier African American Historical and Genealogical Resource Page of Ft. Smith Arkansas

Useful resources for African American historical research at the National Archives

Website for the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society

The American Native Press Archives is devoted to the preservation and dissemination of the written words of Native peoples. It began in 1983 as a clearinghouse for information on American Indian and Alaska Native newspapers and periodicals

Other Freedmen Site

Descendants Of Freedmen Of The Five Civilized Tribes

Black Communities

Towns Born of Struggle and Hope

Buffalo Soldiers

The International Museum of the Horse

Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars

Indian War Medal of Honor Recipients- African-Americans & Indian Scouts

Indian Scout Cemetery

Buffalo Soldiers National Museum

Cathy Williams

"Wild Buffaloes"

Native American History and Culture

National Museum of the American Indian Recommended Reading List

Rufus Harley (Afro-Cherokee Jazz/Bagpipe Player)
Recordings include the following: The Pied Piper of Jazz (box set); Re-Creation of the Gods (import); Brotherly Love, Kings and Queens, Tribute to Courage, Scotch and Soul, Bagpipe Blues

Crossing Bok Chitto by Tim Tingle
A children's book

Media Back to top of page

Black Indians: An American Story. Dir. Chip Richie. Narr. James Earl Jones. Rich-Heape Films, 2001.

Eskridge, Ann, and Carole Morisseau. Black Communities after the Civil War [Video recording]: Echoes across the Prairie. Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 1998.

Heritage of the Black West. Videotape. Dir. St.Clair Bourne. National Geographic Educational Films, 2002.

Jones, Vinnie, Denise Matthews, and John Amos. Black Warriors of the Seminole [Videorecording] / . Prod. WUFT, Gainesville, Fla., and Ironwood Productions. Ironwood Productions, 1990.

Lacy, Mark D. "Indians Comin': Big Chief Got A Golden Crown" Houston Institute for Culture, 11 November 2002 . http://www.houstonculture.org/cr/indians.html

"A Nation Divided: Dispute over Black and Red Seminoles and Who Should Be Included in the Tribe." With Vickey Mabrey. 60 Minutes Il. CBS, New York. 10 July 2002.

Wildcat, Dan. "American Indian Education" Interviewer, Greg Hurd, River City Weekly, January 2005.

Afro-Indigenous Musicians and  Their  Work 

Bassist Oscar Pettiford's album Bohemia after Dark (Bethlehem) Trombonist Jimmy Cleveland was an orchestra member and studio musician, who did the Dakota Staton album Dynamic(Capitol). He has a solo on "Cherokee."

Trumpeter Adolphus "Doc" Cheatham did albums under his own name or with friends; there's one recorded for Sackville in Toronto with pianist Sammy Price.

Reed player/multi-instrumentalist Mixashaun Lee Rozie's recordings are hard to find except on cassette or CD and privately distributed; but he and his brother, bassist Rick Rozie, are on an album recorded by Moers Music in German back in the early 1980s called Afro-Algonquin. The drummer is Rashid Ali of Coltrane fame.

Dissertations Dealing with African American-Native American Relations, Since 1990Back to top of page

Bennett, Herman. "Lovers, Family and Friends: The Formation of Afro-Mesico, 1580-1810" (Ph.D. diss, Duke University, 1993).

Bernardin, Susan Katherine. "Naming the Nation: Race, Romance, and Ethnography in Foundational Native American and African-American Women's Literature" (Ph.D. diss., U. California, Santa Cruz, 1996).

Bost, Suzanne Michelle. "Mulattas and Mestizas: Mixed Identity in Women's Writing of the Americas, 1850–1996" (Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt University, 1997).

Chang, David Anthony Y. O. "From Indian Territory to White Man's Country: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Land Ownership in Eastern Oklahoma, 1889–1940" (Ph.D. diss., U. Wisconsin–Madison, 2002).

Engle, Anna Elisabeth. "Imagined Evangelical Communities: Conversion Literature and the Construction of Identity in Nineteenth-century America" (Ph.D. diss., Emory University , 2000).

Guillow, Lawrence Edward. "The Origins of Race Relations in Los Angeles, 1820–1880: A Multi-ethnic Study" (Ph.D. diss., Arizona State University, 1996).

Kandell, Stuart Leslie. "Grandparents' Tales: Stories Our Children Need to Hear" (Ph.D. diss., The Union Institute, 1996).

Kile, Casey Lane . "Shadows in the Forest": Native Americans, Slaves and Conspiracy in United States Literature, 1675–1863" (Ph.D. diss., U. California, Santa Cruz, 2002).

Krumholz, Linda Joan. "Ritual, Reader, and Narrative in the Works of Leslie Marmon Silko and Toni Morrison" (Ph.D.diss., The U. Wisconsin, Madison, 1991).

Leiker, James N. "Racial Borders: Black Soldiers, Race, and Nationalism along the Rio Grande, 1866-1916." (Ph.D. diss., University of Kansas, 1999).

May, Katja Helma. "Collision and Collusion: Native Americans and African Americans in the Cherokee and Creek Nations, 1830s to 1920s" (Ph.D. diss., U. California, Berkeley, 1994).

Stein, Nancy Rachel. "Shifting the Ground: Four American Women Writers' Revisions of Nature, Gender and Race" (Ph.D. diss., Rutgers University, 1994).

Stevens, Maurice. "Troubling Beginnings: Trans(per)forming African American History and Identity." PH.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1999.

Thorne, Daryl Harris."The Influence of Spirituality on the Implicit Identity of Racially African American Women of Ethnically Cherokee Ancestry." PH.D. diss., Argosy University – Washington, DC 2009

 

Miscellaneous Back to top of page

Kansas Historical Society files of archeologist Randy Thies: "collections relating to Tri-County Area of Greenwood, Elk, and Wilson Counties" by Ronald B. Ellis (1985); "Some Creek History of the Civil War" by James R. Gregory (1901); "Chief Opothleyahola" by John Bartlett Meserve (undated); Sauks and Foxes in Franklin and Osage Counties (1909-1910). See also "The Seminoles: The Seminoles in the American Civil War" pp. 294–304.

Minges, Patrick. "Are You Kituwah's Son?: Cherokee Nationalism and the Civil War." Philadelphia PA , paper presented at the American Academy of Religion Annual Meeting , November 1995.

Morrison, Daryl. Review of White & White, "Now the Wolf Has Come..." Kansas History, 19 no. 3 (Autumn 1996).

NARA (National Archives and Records Administration) Record Groups 94 and 105.

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